Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran


Bufotes sitibundus spreads from Greece eastwards through Turkey, to Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. It is also reported from Iraq and Iran and is distributed through the Caucasus and Russia to Kazakhstan. Formerly, this species was considered Bufotes viridis with three subspecies, but recent molecular studies have changed the name of the taxon. However, respect to the patchy distribution range of the species, species distribution models (SDM) are useful methods to predict and identify potential distribution and suitable habitat for the species. In this study, 62 coordinates of B. sitibundus with 30 variables including six informative bioclimatic environmental variables, namely Bio1 (annual mean temperature), Bio2 (mean diurnal range), Bio4 (temperature seasonality), Bio15 (precipitation seasonality), Bio16 (precipitation of wettest quarter), Bio19 (precipitation of coldest quarter and water vapor pressure (kPa), solar radiation (kJm-2 day-1) for each month of the year, were analyzed. Results show that the solar radiation of seventh month, water vapor pressure of third month and bio19 (Precipitation of Coldest Quarter) have the highest contribution in distribution patterns of the B. sitibundus. It seems that B. sitibundus is a flexible species and can adapt to different habitats, different altitudes and different environmental conditions. Therefore, the distribution range of this species is likely to be larger than what has been reported so far.


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