Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad university, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad,Iran

Abstract

Tardigrades are microscopic sized Ecdysozoans. In Iran, in the last year and for the first time, ‎these animals were identified and reported in Mashhad, and it immediately became an ‎important question that what is the extent of tolerance and biological and reproductive details of ‎these animals in Iran. Therefore, in this study, it has been tried to study the mechanism of ‎biological and physiological adaptations, especially to temperature and humidity stresses. Also, ‎the development stages of the living details of these animals should be studied and compared ‎with other studies in other climates. For this purpose, sampling was conducted from valleys and ‎basins in Mashhad city during four seasons of 2014 to 2016. After identification of the species, ‎films were recorded for these animals at least 6 hours per day, and the results of this study have ‎been gathered on the favorable environmental conditions, reproductive details and development ‎of eggs, nutrition, and other factors.‎

Keywords

Bertolani R. (ed.). Selected Symposia and Monographs U.Z.I., 1, Mucchi, Modena, pp. 211-216.

Bertolani R. 2001. Evolution of the reproductive mechanisms in tardigrades – a review. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240(3-4): 247-252.

Bertolani R., Altiero T., and Nelson D.R. 2009. Tardigrada (water bears). Chapter 188. In: Likens, G. E. (Ed.). Vol. 2.

Goeze J.A.E. 1776. Verzeichnisse der Namen von Insecten und Wurmern, welche in dem Rosel, Kleemann und De Geer vorkommen. Naturforscher 9: 61-78 [1776], 81-85.

Martin H. 2010. The Water Bear web base Still Images I. Overview. Accessed on 27 January 2010.

Hofmann I. 1987. Habitat preference of the most frequent mossliving Tardigrada in the area of Giessen (Hessen).

Hohberg K. 2006. Tardigrade species composition in young soils and some aspects on life history of  Macrobiotus richtersiJ. Murray, 1911. Pedobiologia 50: 267-274.

Kristensen R. 1982. The first record of cyclomorphosis in Tardigrada based on a new genus and species from Arctic meiobenthos. Z. Zool. Syst. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 20: 249-270.

Lemloh M.-L., Brummer, F., Schill, R. O. 2011 history traits of the tonollii and Macrobi 49 (suppl 1): 58-61.

Morgan C.I. 1977. Population dynamics of two species of Tardigrada,  Macrobiotus hufelandii (Schultze) Echiniscus (Echiniscus) testudo (Doyère), in roof moss from Swansea. Journal of animal ecology 46 (1): 263-279.