The present study focuses on the distribution patterns of Iranian endemic monocots and concentrates on important zones for these taxa in a phyto–geographical context. Iranian endemic monocots included 152 species belonging to 35 genera of 10 plant families, and comprised about 2.08% of Iranian plant flora as well as about 6.9% of endemic flora of Iran. Monocots mostly stretched between latitudes of 35˚ to 37˚ North latitude. In Iran, 70.3% of taxa can be classified in endangered categories and are mostly distributed in the Zagros and Alborz ranges. On the basis of endemic richness map, the central Zagros, central Alborz and Kopet Dagh ranges are the areas of top priority for conservation. The present study reaffirms the Irano–Turanian region as a center for plant endemism in Iran and worldwide. Major efforts for conservation actions must be focused on these centers.