Vertebrate faunal diversity in Mt. Calavite Wildlife Sanctuary, Occidental Mindoro, Philippines: An assessment using the Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring System (BAMS)
Keywords:biodiversity, birds, , herpetofauna, mammals, Mindoro Endemics, Philippine endemics, reptiles, threatened fauna
Rich biodiversity is one of the Philippines' greatest assets. The population and diversity of flora and fauna continue to face threats due to anthropogenic interventions. This study in Mt. Calavite Wildlife Sanctuary (MCWS) is one of the pioneering research on vertebrate fauna in a permanent biodiversity monitoring plot which followed a nationally accepted system of biodiversity assessment and monitoring for species and habitat conservation. The study established a 2-ha Permanent Biodiversity Monitoring Area (PBMA) following the procedures in the Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring System crafted by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Biodiversity Management Bureau. Results showed that MCWS was home to different kinds of vertebrate fauna including 23 bird species from 17 families, 7 mammalian species from 6 families, and 8 herpetofaunal species from 7 families. The habitat association assessment revealed that the majority of species were forest-dependent and some were associated with grassland, agricultural areas, and forest streams. The computed diversity values in MCWS were generally higher than in other areas in the Philippines. Lastly, a high percentage of ecologically important species were recorded including the native, endemic, and threatened species. The study revealed the presence of essential species that shall be prioritized for conservation. The product of this study can act as baseline information for the continuous monitoring of the area and can further be used in crafting more appropriate and comprehensive conservation and management plans for the area.
Amoroso, V. B., Mohagan, A. B., Coritico, F. P., Lagunday, N. E., Yorong, A. P., Colong, R. D., and Ponce, R. G. (2018). Avifaunal Assemblage in the expansion sites f the Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary, Mindanao, Philippines. Nature Research Conservation, 3 (2): 103–109.
Biodiversity Management Bureau. (2015). Guidebook to Protected Areas of the Philippines. Biodiversity Management Bureau – Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines.
Biodiversity Management Bureau and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH. (2017). Manual on Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring System for Terrestrial Ecosystems. BMB and GIZ GmbH.
BirdLife International. (2020). Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mt. Calavite. https://www.birdlife.org.
DENR. (2019). DAO 2019-09. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Fernando, E. (1998). Forest formations and flora in the Philippines: Handout in FBS 21. Philippines: University of the Philippines College of Forestry and Natural Resources. (Unpublished).
Gascon, C. N., Garcia, R. C., Beltran, F. N., Faller, W. C., & Agudilla, M. A. R. (2013). Biodiversity assessment of Mt. Banahaw de Dolores, Philippines. Asian Journal of Biodiversity, 4(1), 23-45.
Gatumbato, E. A. (2009). Mindoro Biodiversity Conservation Program Thrusts: Promoting Shared Responsibility towards the Conservation of Mindoro’s Biological and Cultural Diversity. Mindoro Biodiverstiy Conservation Foundation Inc.
Gojo Cruz, P. H. P. G., Afuang, L. E., Gonzalez, J. C. T., & Gruezo, W. S. (2019). Distribution and diversity patterns of herpetofauna in the Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed, Nueva Ecija, Caraballo Mountain Range, Philippines. Biodiversity Data Journal, (7).
Guaza, M. C. P., Yap, K. M. L., Singson, S. G. T., Nor, S. P., Amado, R. L., Torres, M. A. J., Non-Cabrera, M. L., and Requieron, E. A. (2016). Comparative diversity and composition of small non-volant mammals in areas found on Soccsksargen Region, Philippines. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 8 (2): 255-264.
Heideman, P., & Heaney, L. (1989). Population biology of fruit bats (Pteropidae) in Philippine submontane rainforest. Journal of Zoology, 218(4), 565-586.
Ingle, N. and Heaney, L. (1992). A key to the bats of the Philippine Islands. Fieldiana.
IUCN. (2022). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2021-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. https://www.iucnredlist.org/.
Kennedy, R., Gonzales, P. C., Dickinson, E., Miranda Jr, H. C., & Fisher, T. H. (2000). A guide to the birds of the Philippines. Oxford University Press.
Lee, W., Mcglone, M., Wright, E., Rutledge, D., Wilson, D., Norbury, G., Overton, J., Wiser, S., West, C., Colin, O., Wright, D., and Stephens, T. (2005). Biodiversity Inventory and Monitoring: A review of national and international systems and a proposed framework for future biodiversity monitoring by the Department of Conservation. Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd.
Matsubayashi, H., Boyles, R., Salac, R., Barrio, B., Cruz, L., Garcia, R., Ishihara, S., and Kanai, Y. (2010). Present Status of Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) in Mt. Aruyan, Mindoro, Philippines. Tropics 18: 167-170.
Mindoro Biodiversity Conservation Foundation Inc. 2014. Mt. Calavite Wildlife Sanctuary Resource and Socio-Economic Assessment (RSEA) Final Report. Muntinlupa City: Mindoro Biodiversity Conservation Foundation Inc.
NORDECO and DENR. (2001). Biodiversity Monitoring System Manual for Protected Areas. Second edition. DENR, Manila, and NORDECO, Copenhagen.
Pawlik, A. F. (2021). Technology, adaptation, and mobility in maritime environments in the Philippines from the Late Pleistocene to Early/Mid-Holocene. Quaternary International, 596, 109-123.
Pawlik, A. F., Piper, P. J., Faylona, M. G. P. G., Padilla, S. G., Carlos, J., Mijares, A. S., Vallejo, B., Reyes, M., Amano, N., Ingicco, T., & Porr, M. (2014). Adaptation and foraging from the terminal Pleistocene to the early Holocene: excavation at Bubog on Ilin Island, Philippines. Journal of Field Archaeology, 39(3), 230-247.
Pereira, H., Belnap, J., Böhm, M., Brummitt, N., Garcia Moreno, J., Gregory, R., Martin, L., Peng, C., Proença, V., Schmeller, D., and Swaay, C. (2017). Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables at the Species Level. In: Walters M., Scholes R. (Eds.), The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks. Springer.
Singh, M. (2020). Evaluating the impact of future climate and forest cover change on the ability of Southeast (SE) Asia’s protected areas to provide coverage to the habitats of threatened avian species. Ecological Indicators, 114, 106307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106307.
Von Rintelen, K., Arida, E., & Häuser, C. (2017). A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. Research Ideas and Outcomes, 3, e20860. https://doi.org/10.3897/rio.3.e20860.
Zapanta, B. R., Achondo, M. J. M. M., Raganas, A. F. M., Fritzie, A., Delima, A. G. D., Mantiquilla, J. A., & Salvaña, F. R. P. (2019). Species richness of trees in disturbed habitats within a protected area and its implications for conservation: The case of Mt. Apo Natural Park, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 20(7), 2081-2091. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200740.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.