Diversity of Fig species and their ecological services in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India


  • Dipika Parbo Wildlife Resource and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forestry, NERIST, Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 791109
  • Awadhesh Kumar Wildlife Resource and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forestry, NERIST, Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 791109
  • Ashalata Devi Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Sonitpur, Assam, India
  • Janmejay Sethy Amity Institute of Forestry and Wildlife, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Yengkhom Roamer Zest Wildlife Resource and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Forestry, NERIST, Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 791109
  • Rakesh Basnett Forest and Environment Department, Government of Sikkim, East Sikkim, India 737101




Abundance, Distribution, Ficus, Frugivore, Keystone, Morphology


Ficus spp. belongs to the Moraceae family and is primarily found in tropical lowland rainforests. They exhibit various growth types including hemi-epiphytes, climbers, shrubs, and trees. The Ficus genus plays a vital role as a keystone species as it significantly impacts its microhabitat and serves as the primary food supply for frugivores throughout the year. Arunachal Pradesh, a state in Northeast India, located in the Eastern Himalayas, comprises a diverse range of forests, including deciduous, evergreen, pine, temperate, alpine, and grassland enriched with a variety of flora and fauna. The current study was conducted in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, to determine the Ficus diversity and associated frugivores. The survey was done using 20m X 20m quadrats (41 nos.), which were randomly placed within the sanctuary. Ficus-dependent frugivore diversity was examined in their fruiting season using either focal or scan animal sampling techniques by direct sighting. A total of 21 Ficus species comprising 482 individuals were recorded, with the highest distribution in the Tipi Range and the lowest in the Pakke Kessang Range. Four habits of Ficus species, large trees, small trees, shrubs and climbers, were documented. There are five sub-genera of Ficus that have been recorded. Ficus semicordata is the most abundant species, while F. religiosa is the least abundant. The frequency percentage of F. benghalensis (46.34%) is the highest, and F. religiosa (2.44%) is the least, while the density of F. auriculata (146.34 ha-1) is the highest, and F. religiosa (2.44 ha-1) has the lowest. The highest level of similarity among Ficus species is observed between the Tipi and Seijosa Range. The figs of Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary are associated with 54 frugivore species out of them 43 avian and 11 mammalian species.


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How to Cite

Parbo, D. ., Kumar, A. ., Devi, A. ., Sethy, J. ., Roamer Zest, Y. ., & Basnett, R. . (2024). Diversity of Fig species and their ecological services in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India . Journal of Wildlife and Biodiversity, 8(2), 55–80. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10938700